Magnificence salons are key potential sources of illness unfold


The idea of a salon is linked to magnificence, an institution coping with beauty merchandise and instruments to enhance the looks of 1’s hair, face, and physique. Cosmetics are typically mixtures of chemical compounds derived from pure (comparable to coconut oil) or artificial sources. In america, the Meals and Drug Administration (FDA), which regulates the cosmetics trade, defines cosmetics as

Meant to be utilized to the human physique for cleaning, beautifying, selling attractiveness, or altering the looks with out affecting the physique’s construction or capabilities. (Sources of Beauty Merchandise & Substances)1

Salons present a variety of providers together with hairdressing, nail care (manicures and pedicures), hair elimination by waxing and threading, mud baths, and plenty of different providers. Nonetheless, they’re additionally thought-about a serious well being concern.2,3 The well being dangers related to magnificence salons fluctuate relying on the merchandise and instruments used, the character of the enterprise, and the service suppliers themselves.4 Salons can contribute to and trigger the unfold of viral, fungal, and bacterial infections.3,5 Among the many ailments that may be transmitted in magnificence salons are hepatitis B & C, herpes, AIDS, pores and skin and eye infections, hair lice, and continual fungal ailments.2,6–12

The elements in beauty merchandise and the supplies used within the instruments make the salon an excellent surroundings for the proliferation of microbes, thus contributing to the unfold of varied ailments.2,3 Cosmetics fulfill all the necessities for microbial progress;13,14 the elements of most magnificence merchandise embody sugar, starch, protein, amino acids, natural acids, acids, alkalis, salts, paraffin, fatty acids, alcohols, esters, moisturizers, colours and dyes, preservatives, antioxidants fragrances, and important oils. As well as, most of those elements are water soluble, which is an important issue for the expansion of microorganisms.13 Cosmetics that include a high-water content material are at a better danger of contamination, which may result in an alteration within the composition of the product and/or represent a risk to the well being of the patron (Sources of the chemistry of cosmetics; Australian Academy of Science).15–17

Right here, we overview the literature that examines the microbial contamination of salon merchandise and instruments, the usual hygienic and sterilization practices utilized in salons, and the dangers of illness unfold by these companies.

Literature Evaluation

Salon Hygiene

Salons have a tendency to make use of chemical and bodily strategies to sterilize instruments and tools, comparable to chemical reagents, boiling water, autoclaving, chemical reagents, quartz bead sterilization, and UV mild (Sources of Salon Hygiene, Correct Practices for Sanitation, Disinfection, and Sterilization).18 The strategy of utilizing sizzling water sterilization includes inserting the instruments in boiling water for a interval of a minimum of 3–5 min. Whereas this technique is comparatively quick, it has been proven to be inadequate for killing all microorganisms.19 Autoclaving is probably the most dependable solution to kill all microbes, though it isn’t supreme for sterilizing electrical tools, and the method of sterilization requires a comparatively very long time. Chemical disinfectants are efficient in killing microbes or at the least slowing their progress; nevertheless, most of those chemical substances are hazardous and have to be used with warning (Sources of Correct Sanitation Protocols Can Make or Break Your Salon).20 At present, most salons use barbicide resolution as a disinfectant, which is extremely poisonous to people (Sources of Salon Hygiene, Correct Practices for Sanitation, Disinfection, and Sterilization).18

Some salons use a quartz sterilizer or a UV sterilizer. The quartz sterilizer makes use of a course of that consists of heating air by quartz beads for a interval of 5–15 s at 250 °C (482 °F). One of these sterilizer accommodates numerous instruments, however the form and construction of the instruments might change after a time period. The UV sterilizer is the most secure technique for instruments and brushes that can not be sterilized at excessive temperatures; the one drawback is that it accommodates only a few instruments (Sources of Salon Hygiene, Correct Practices for Sanitation, Disinfection, and Sterilization)18. After cleansing and sterilizing, the instruments have to be saved correctly in cool, dry locations to scale back the chance of any progress of micro organism and fungi remaining on instruments and due to this fact, the unfold of illness. Brushes ought to be saved in make-up baggage and steel and wood instruments ought to be saved in closed plastic containers (Sources of Salon Hygiene, Correct Practices for Sanitation, Disinfection, and Sterilization).18

About 35% of service suppliers use UV sterilization and about 20% use quartz beads to sanitize their instruments. Nonetheless, using an ultrasonic cleaner was reported by just one% of suppliers. None of those described strategies have been confirmed ample in reaching a passable stage of sterilization by themselves, and a mix of approaches ought to be used.21


Beauty merchandise and instruments are a good surroundings for the multiplication of microbes, which contribute to and trigger the unfold of viral, fungal, and bacterial infections.2,5 Quite a few components contribute to this drawback. First, the elements of most magnificence merchandise, comparable to natural and inorganic compounds, moisturizers, primary minerals, and progress components, present an surroundings conducive to the multiplication of microbes. Second, the dates of manufacturing and expiration should not marked on cosmetics; consequently, the discount in effectiveness of the preservatives within the cosmetics over time is unknown.15 Third, cosmetics should not manufactured beneath sanitary circumstances and are continuously shared in magnificence salons.22 Fourth, the common instruments utilized in beauty salons comparable to razors, scissors, clippers, and nail care instruments can by chance penetrate the pores and skin, which can result in well being issues starting from infected pores and skin to hepatitis.23 Service suppliers themselves are vulnerable to transferring infections amongst their prospects in the event that they undergo from severe medical issues.4,10,24 Accordingly, a number of research have been undertaken to find out if the transmission of viruses, micro organism, ring worm, or fungi is related to beauty procedures in magnificence salons.2

Some bacterial species within the Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas genera are of main concern as a result of they’re related to many frequent ailments and might trigger respiratory issues and continual ailments owing to their toxicity.15,25–27 An actual-life case was reported of a person who acquired a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) an infection after visiting a hairdresser in London, UK.12 In 2006, in Rivers State, Nigeria, unhygienic instruments contributed to HIV infections and hepatitis, that are each blood-borne ailments.28 S. aureus in different research has been proven to trigger outbreaks amongst salon prospects in america.29

Sadly, most make-up brushes and different cosmetics objects, even after being completely disinfected, nonetheless pose a danger by way of bacterial transmission and an infection every time they arrive in touch with cracks within the pores and skin.2,4,10,12 4 bacterial species are thought-about by pharmacopeia in america as indicators of contaminated cosmetics: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli.

Microorganisms Remoted from Salon Instruments

A number of literature reviews doc the existence of quite a lot of microorganisms remoted from magnificence instruments utilized in salons comparable to nail care instruments, sharpeners, sponges, combs, make-up brushes, hair stretchers, rollers, and hairpins (Desk 1).6,30 Researchers collected samples from clippers, clipper steps, combs, and brushes from 40 totally different magnificence salons in Taraba State, Nigeria, in 2020. The samples have been cultured on nutrient agar, mannitol salt agar, MacConkey agar, and Sabouraud dextrose agar. All samples contained pathogenic micro organism, together with species of Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Streptococcus. Along with micro organism, pathogenic fungi within the following genera have been additionally discovered: Aspergillus, Trichophyton, Malassezia, Mucor, and Microsporum. The best microbial content material on this examine was measured on clippers, as these instruments acquired the bottom stage of sterilization apply amongst all the examined instruments.31 In 2019, on the College of Al-Qadisiyah, School of Biotechnology in Iraq, six bacterial species have been remoted from combs, brushes, rollers, hairpins, scissors, razors, dryers, and laundry instruments from magnificence salons within the campus. Primarily based on the molecular and biochemical traits of the remoted micro organism, they have been recognized as S. aureus, which was probably the most dominant species in all samples, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., and Enterobacter spp.6 In the identical 12 months on the college, micro organism and fungi have been remoted on nutrient agar and potato dextrose agar from combs and brushes utilized in public magnificence salons in three campuses in Nigeria. The bacterial isolates have been recognized as Staphylococcus aureus, and species of Bacillus, Micrococcus, Serratia, Citrobacter, Proteus, and Shigella, and fungi comparable to Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium spp., Trichophyton spp., and Microsporum spp.23 It may be concluded from this examine that magnificence salons might be thought-about a hazard when the hygiene commonplace is much from the anticipated, particularly when it’s mixed with excessive moisture and mud content material. One other examine investigated the microbial content material in a magnificence blender when it was not cleaned in any respect or when it was dropped on the ground and reused with out cleansing. The outcomes revealed the presence of each S. aureus and E. coli.30

Desk 1 The Most Frequent Microbes That Have Been Remoted in Magnificence Salons

In 2018, hair samples have been collected from salon instruments from ten totally different salons throughout the Benin metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. All samples have been inoculated on nutrient agar. The bacterial isolates obtained from salon instruments included E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus viridian, and Corynebacterium sp.32 In Kamyaran metropolis, Iran, in the summertime of 2015, micro organism and fungi have been remoted from hair dressings utilized in magnificence salons utilizing quite a lot of selective microbial media. The contaminating microorganisms have been recognized as Staphylococcus aureus, S. dermis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and species of Bacillus, Micrococcus, Enterococcus, and Enterobacter, and the fungal species Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, Alternaria spp., Cladosporium spp., Geotrichum candidum, Rhizopus nigricans, R. arrhizus, Trichophyton spp., Mucor spp., Candida albicans, and Penicillium spp.33

In Michael Okpara College of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria, samples from combs, brushes, and hairdryers have been collected from two hairdressing salons contained in the campus to analyze the function of salons in spreading ailments. The samples have been inoculated on nutrient agar, MacConkey agar, and mannitol agar and confirmed the presence of bacterial species within the genera Streptococcus and Micrococcus, in addition to Staphylococcus aureus, and some species of fungi within the genera Aspergillus, Mucor, and Rhizopus.3 The identical concept, the function of salons in spreading ailments, was examined by Enemuor and colleague at Kogi State College, Anyigba. They collected samples from combs, brushes, hair stretchers, rollers, and hairpins from six hairdressing salons. The samples have been then cultured on quite a lot of selective and normal media, revealing the presence of 5 bacterial and 6 potential pathogenic fungal species. The dominant bacterial species throughout all six salons was S. aureus, adopted by S. epidermidis. This examine thought-about the presence of the pathogenic fungus Trichophyton as an indicator of the likelihood of contamination by extra dangerous microorganisms.2 Despite the fact that the pattern measurement on this examine was very small, it highlighted a collection of issues concerning the appropriate hygiene stage that must be enforced in salons.

In one other fascinating examine by Baqer et al (2014), sponges and mascara have been examined to judge microbial contamination. The outcomes revealed the existence of regular flora, comparable to S. epidermidis, and the dominance of S. aureus and different Enterobacteriaceae members of the family together with E. coli, Shigella, and P. aeruginosa. Every of those species is understood for his or her capability to trigger nosocomial infections in well being facilities and the neighborhood. This examine additionally employed a pure sterilization technique utilizing the supernatant of Lactobacillus, which has antimicrobial exercise and might management the expansion of microbes residing in magnificence sponges and eyelash mascara.34

In 2015, fungal species have been detected in hair brush samples from magnificence salons in Jatinangor, Indonesia, utilizing two totally different tradition media, Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. Nearly all of fungi on this examine was saprophytic fungi, together with species within the following genera: Aspergillus, Fonsecaea, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Mucor, Rhodotorula, Gliocaldium, Phialophora, Rhizopus, and the species Mycelia sterilia. The present fungi have been extremely affected by the salon apply utilized in washing brushes. When required care was uncared for, examination revealed the presence of a small proportion of dermatophyte species. When brushes have been cleaned as soon as every week with a standard detergent, Candida spp. have been detected, and when the brushes have been by no means washed, Trichophyton spp. and Malassezia spp. have been detected.10

In 2012, Naz remoted and detected quite a few human pathogens from 100 samples of magnificence salon instruments together with blusher brushes, face sponges, and wax. The samples have been inoculated on mannitol salt agar, cetrimide agar for bacterial detection, and potato dextrose agar for fungal exams. Many of the wax samples, all brushes, and wonder sponges have been contaminated with S. aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated 75% of the samples, whereas lower than 50% of the samples have been contaminated by yeast and different fungi.35

Many of the analysis on assessing the function of salon instruments within the unfold of ailments discovered that these instruments both have been by no means stylized or weren’t cleaned between prospects. Even when hygienic practices have been employed, acceptable ranges of sterilization have been hardly ever utilized.

Microorganisms Remoted from Cosmetics Merchandise

Along with all the research investigating pathogenic microorganisms contaminating beauty instruments, the literature is replete with reviews on the isolation of microbes from beauty merchandise in magnificence salons, together with lipstick, mascara, eye shadow, basis, blusher, eyeliner, facial lotions, and hand and physique lotions (Desk 1). All of those merchandise are thought-about an excellent surroundings for microbial proliferation because of their wealthy favorable elements.

In a single examine in 2018 on the College of Raparin, Iraq, over 120 moistened cotton swab samples have been collected from ten totally different hair and wonder salons to outline the presence of microorganisms in lipstick, eyeliner, mascara, and basis. The examine discovered extra bacterial progress than fungal progress. The bacterial species included Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Enterococcus spp. The fungal specie was Candida albicans, which is taken into account a pure constituent of intestine flora, however when it transforms removed from its authentic web site it might trigger a number of continual infections.36

Related microbes have been present in research carried out in the identical 12 months at Benghazi College, Libya. That examine analyzed microbial contamination of 25 facial cosmetics together with samples of kohl, eyeliners, and lipsticks. Bacterial and fungal contaminants, comparable to Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, respectively, have been discovered.37 Extra beauty merchandise have investigated earlier in ten magnificence salons in numerous areas of Tabriz metropolis, Iran. Scientists collected 52 samples from pores and skin and eye cosmetics, comparable to cream, mascara, powder, and eyeliner from All samples have been inoculated on cetrimide agar, Levine eosin methylene blue agar, Baird Parker agar, and Sabouraud dextrose chloramphenicol agar. All cosmetics have been discovered to be contaminated with micro organism, fungi, and yeast, and probably the most dominant species have been related to the next genera: Streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Rhodotorul, and Candida, in addition to E. coli.5 Amongst all the samples used on this examine, the powder had the very best contamination stage, which could be because of publicity to air and the frequent use of the identical powder pad. In addition to powder, mascara additionally had a excessive contamination stage, probably because of its excessive moisture content material, which contributes to ocular an infection.22

The quantity of people that use and share a beauty product tremendously impacts the microbial contamination charge. In a examine by Skowron et al,38 samples together with cream, lotion, and face and hair masks have been divided into three teams. The primary group of merchandise have been utilized by one particular person, the second group was utilized by a bunch of individuals, and the final group of merchandise was expired and utilized by public. The microbial content material in personally used merchandise was a lot decrease than that of publicly used merchandise, and the expired merchandise exhibited the very best microbial contamination. Nearly all of microorganisms detected on this examine have been thought-about microflora and few pathogenic organisms have been detected, comparable to P. aeruginosa and C. albicans.38

Though many microbes detected in beauty merchandise should not essentially pathogenic, they might nonetheless pose a danger when contemplating the general microbiome. It has been proven that organisms within the regular flora can threaten human life once they switch from one particular person to a different, which is frequent in salons. It was discovered that the upper the moisture proportion within the magnificence product, the upper the microbial depend. As well as, leaving the cosmetics instruments or merchandise uncovered, uncovered them to the air, mud, and airborne microorganisms, which can enhance microbial contamination.


A overview of a number of research clearly confirmed that extra bacterial species, particularly Gram-negative micro organism, have been remoted from beauty merchandise in magnificence salons. The principle motive for that is seemingly because of the preservative utilized in beauty product being more practical in inhibiting fungal progress than bacterial progress.41

Some microbes remoted from beauty merchandise and instruments are thought-about as important threats to public well being. S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and Okay. pneumoniae are ubiquitous within the surroundings, and are associated to nosocomial infections, inflicting extreme infections in crops, people, and different animals. Micro organism associated to nosocomial an infection microbes are hardly ever and poorly managed by antibiotics.42 Along with infections acquired from hospitals, food-borne ailments are one other problem brought on by microbes discovered on salon devices and merchandise. The most typical food-borne microorganisms, comparable to E. coli, Bacillus sp., Salmonella sp., and Yersinia sp. are broadly present in salons. Each Bacillus cereus and E. coli may cause meals poisoning, as they’re brokers that secrete toxins into meals, triggering gastrointestinal sickness. Salmonella spp. and Shigella dysenteriae unfold through contaminated meals and meals handlers, are identified to trigger food-borne illness, and are extremely proof against sure antibiotics.43

The findings of those research might have been restricted by the variable sorts of microorganisms current within the collected samples. As well as, the approaches used might not have been conducive to isolating all sorts of contaminating organisms; some organisms might require particular circumstances to develop on agar plates, or tissue tradition propagation within the case of viruses and different parasites.

There’s a want to extend the general public’s consciousness of the potential for illness transmission by the frequent instruments and merchandise utilized in magnificence salons. Accordingly, primarily based on the findings and suggestions of the research reviewed right here, we intention to intensify salon requirements of care utilized in sterilizing magnificence instruments and merchandise, and storing them correctly. As well as, we extremely advocate using particular person beauty kits. All of those suggestions, if employed, ought to contribute considerably to a discount within the unfold of an infection and illness by magnificence salons. In time period of consciousness, the Worldwide Group for Standardization supplied pointers that ought to be taken into consideration within the area of beauty manufacturing, from manufacturing to the utilization by prospects, till waste disposal.


The authors report no conflicts of curiosity for this work.


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