COVID-19 Pandemic Continues To Reshape Work in America


As extra workplaces reopen, most teleworkers say they’re working from residence by selection fairly than necessity

(Getty Photographs)

Pew Analysis Heart carried out this research to higher perceive the work experiences of employed adults almost two years into the coronavirus outbreak. This evaluation relies on 5,889 U.S. adults who’re working half time or full time and who’ve just one job or who’ve a couple of job however think about one among them to be their main job. The info was collected as part of a bigger survey carried out Jan. 24-30, 2022. Everybody who took half is a member of Pew Analysis Heart’s American Developments Panel (ATP), a web based survey panel that’s recruited by means of nationwide, random sampling of residential addresses. This manner almost all U.S. adults have an opportunity of choice. The survey is weighted to be consultant of the U.S. grownup inhabitants by gender, race, ethnicity, partisan affiliation, schooling and different classes. Learn extra concerning the ATP’s methodology.

See right here to learn extra concerning the questions used for this report and the report’s methodology.

References to staff or employed adults embody those that are employed half time or full time and who’ve just one job or who’ve a couple of job however think about one among them to be their main job.

References to White and Black adults embody solely those that aren’t Hispanic and establish as just one race. Hispanics are of any race.

References to school graduates or folks with a school diploma comprise these with a bachelor’s diploma or extra. “Some faculty” consists of these with an affiliate diploma and those that attended faculty however didn’t get hold of a level.

All references to get together affiliation embody those that lean towards that get together. Republicans embody those that establish as Republicans and those that say they lean towards the Republican Social gathering. Democrats embody those that establish as Democrats and those that say they lean towards the Democratic Social gathering.

“Center earnings” is outlined right here as two-thirds to double the median annual household earnings for panelists on the American Developments Panel. “Decrease earnings” falls beneath that vary; “higher earnings” falls above it. See the methodology for extra particulars.

Majority of workers with jobs that can be done from home are teleworking, even as more workplaces have become available

Practically two years into the COVID-19 pandemic, roughly six-in-ten U.S. staff who say their jobs can primarily be completed from residence (59%) are working from residence all or more often than not. The overwhelming majority of those staff (83%) say they have been working from residence even earlier than the omicron variant began to unfold in the US, based on a brand new Pew Analysis Heart survey. This marks a decline from October 2020, when 71% of these with jobs that might be completed from residence have been working from residence all or more often than not, nevertheless it’s nonetheless a lot increased than the 23% who say they teleworked incessantly earlier than the coronavirus outbreak. 

The impetus for working from residence has shifted significantly since 2020. Right this moment, extra staff say they’re doing this by selection fairly than necessity. Amongst those that have a office outdoors of their residence, 61% now say they’re selecting not to enter their office, whereas 38% say they’re working from residence as a result of their office is closed or unavailable to them. Earlier within the pandemic, simply the other was true: 64% mentioned they have been working from residence as a result of their workplace was closed, and 36% mentioned they have been selecting to do business from home. 

For many who do have entry to their workplaces however are opting to work primarily from residence, their causes for doing so have modified since fall 2020. Fewer cite considerations about being uncovered to the coronavirus – 42% now vs. 57% in 2020 say it is a main motive they’re presently working from residence all or more often than not. And extra say a choice for working from house is a significant motive they’re doing so (76% now vs. 60% in 2020). There’s additionally been a big enhance since 2020 (from 9% to 17%) within the share saying the truth that they’ve relocated away from the realm the place they work is a significant motive why they’re presently teleworking.

For workers who’ve made the switch to teleworking, most have found more balance but less connection with co-workers

Working from house is a comparatively new expertise for a majority of staff with jobs that may be completed remotely – 57% say they hardly ever or by no means labored from residence previous to the coronavirus outbreak. For many who have made the change to telework, their work lives have modified in some vital methods. On the plus aspect, most (64%) of those that are actually working from residence a minimum of a number of the time however hardly ever or by no means did earlier than the pandemic say it’s simpler now for them to steadiness work with their private life. And plenty of (44%) say working from residence has made it simpler for them to get their work completed and meet deadlines, whereas only a few (10%) say it’s been more durable to do that. On the similar time, 60% say they really feel much less related to their co-workers now. Most (72%) say working from residence hasn’t affected their potential to advance of their job.

Seeking to the long run, 60% of staff with jobs that may be completed from residence say when the coronavirus outbreak is over, if they’ve the selection, they’d prefer to do business from home all or more often than not. That is up from 54% who mentioned the identical in 2020. Amongst those that are presently working from residence all or more often than not, 78% say they’d prefer to proceed to take action after the pandemic, up from 64% in 2020.

Most U.S. staff (60%) don’t have jobs that may be completed from residence, and others who do have a majority of these jobs are going into their office a minimum of generally. For a big majority of those staff, their jobs proceed to contain a minimum of some in-person interplay with others at their office. About half of those that ever work together with different folks at their office say they’re very (19%) or considerably (32%) involved about being uncovered to the coronavirus. That is just about unchanged from October 2020. Roughly one-in-four (26%) say they’re extra involved about this now than they have been earlier than the omicron variant began to unfold, and the identical share say they’re much less involved now. A plurality (47%) say they’re about as involved now as they have been earlier than omicron.

The nationally consultant survey of 10,237 U.S. adults (together with 5,889 employed adults who’ve just one job or who’ve a number of jobs however think about one to be their main) was carried out Jan. 24-30, 2022, utilizing the Heart’s American Developments Panel. Among the many different key findings: 

Staff with jobs that may be completed from residence who’re selecting to enter their office cite choice and productiveness as main explanation why they hardly ever or by no means do business from home. Six-in-ten of those staff say a significant motive they hardly ever or by no means do business from home is that they like working at their office, and the same share (61%) cite feeling extra productive at their office as a significant motive. Comparatively few say main causes for working in-person are that they don’t have the correct area or assets at residence (21%), that there are extra alternatives for development in the event that they’re at their office (14%) or that they really feel stress from their supervisor or co-workers to be there (9%).

About half of staff who’re working from residence all or more often than not and whose workplaces are closed say they might be comfy going into their office if it have been to reopen within the subsequent month. One-in-five say they’d be very comfy returning to their office, and 29% say they’d be considerably comfy doing this. In October 2020, a smaller share of staff (36%) mentioned they might really feel comfy returning to their office within the subsequent month.

Most staff who aren’t working solely from residence (77%) say they’re a minimum of considerably glad with the measures their employer has put in place to guard them from coronavirus publicity, however solely 36% say they’re very glad. As was the case earlier within the pandemic, White staff are extra possible than Black or Hispanic staff to say they’re very glad with the protection measures which have been put in place. And upper-income staff usually tend to be very glad than middle- and lower-income staff.

Roughly one-in-five staff who aren’t working solely at residence (22%) say their employer has required staff to get a COVID-19 vaccine. About three-quarters (77%) say their employer has not required vaccination (47% say their employer has inspired it and 30% say they haven’t). No matter what their employer requires, 30% of those staff assume their employer ought to require vaccines, whereas most say their employer shouldn’t (39% say their employer ought to encourage however not require vaccines and 30% say their employer shouldn’t do both). These views are sharply divided alongside partisan strains: 47% of Democrats and those that lean to the Democratic Social gathering who aren’t working solely from residence assume their employer ought to require staff to get a vaccine, in contrast with simply 10% of Republicans and Republican leaners. 

Frequency of telework differs by schooling, earnings

More uptake in telework among college graduates, upper-income workers

There are key demographic variations between staff whose jobs can and can’t be completed from residence. Amongst those that say the tasks of their job can primarily be completed from residence, some teams are teleworking extra incessantly than others. 

School graduates with jobs that may be completed from residence (65%) are extra possible than these with out a four-year faculty diploma (53%) to say they’re working from residence all or more often than not. And better shares of upper-income staff (67%) are working from residence in contrast with middle- (56%) and lower-income (53%) staff.

A plurality (44%) of all employed adults who’re presently working from residence all or more often than not say it is because they’re selecting not to enter their office. About three-in-ten (28%) say their office is presently closed or unavailable to them, and the same share (27%) say they don’t have a office outdoors of their residence. The share saying they don’t have a office outdoors of their house is up considerably from 2020, when 18% mentioned this. Adults with out a four-year faculty diploma are more likely to fall into this class than these with a bachelor’s diploma or extra schooling (40% vs. 19%, respectively). 

About half of workers whose offices are closed say they’d feel comfortable returning in the next month

Staff who’re presently teleworking all or more often than not as a result of their office is closed or unavailable to them are divided over whether or not they’d be comfy returning there within the close to future. One-in-five say, if their office reopened within the subsequent month, they’d be very comfy working there; 29% say they might be considerably comfy. About half say they’d be both considerably (26%) or very (25%) uncomfortable returning to their office in that timeframe.

In October 2020, staff had extra trepidation about returning to their workplaces. At the moment, solely 36% of staff who have been working from residence as a result of their workplace was closed mentioned, if it have been to reopen within the subsequent month, they’d be comfy returning (13% mentioned they’d really feel very comfy working of their office, 22% mentioned they’d really feel considerably comfy). Roughly two-thirds mentioned they’d be considerably (33%) or very (31%) uncomfortable doing this.

Those that are teleworking by selection are much less more likely to be doing so due to well being considerations, extra more likely to say they like it, in contrast with 2020

Fewer workers now say they’re working from home because of concerns about coronavirus exposure, compared with 2020

The explanations staff give for working from residence after they might in any other case go into their office have modified significantly from October 2020. Right this moment, a choice for working from house is driving these choices fairly than considerations concerning the coronavirus. Totally 76% of staff who point out that their office is out there to them say a significant motive why they’re presently teleworking all or more often than not is that they like working from residence. An extra 17% say it is a minor motive why they’re working from residence, and seven% say this isn’t a motive. The share citing this as a significant motive is up considerably from 60% in 2020.

On the similar time, the share pointing to considerations about being uncovered to the coronavirus as a significant motive for working from residence has fallen from 57% in 2020 to 42% in the present day. About one-in-four teleworkers (27%) say it is a minor motive they’re working from residence, and 30% say it’s not a motive. Ladies (48%) are extra possible than males (37%) to say it is a main motive they’re working from residence. There’s additionally a partisan hole: Half of Democrats and Democratic leaners cite considerations about publicity to the coronavirus as a significant motive why they’re presently working from residence all or more often than not, in contrast with 25% of Republicans and Republican leaners.

A smaller however rising share of staff (17%) say relocation to an space away from their office, both completely or quickly, is a significant motive why they’re working from residence. An extra 8% say it is a minor motive they’re working from residence, and 75% say this isn’t a motive.

Amongst teleworking dad and mom whose workplaces are open and who’ve a minimum of one little one youthful than 18, 32% say little one care is a significant motive why they’re working from residence all or more often than not, down from 45% in October 2020. Some (15%) say a significant motive why they’re presently working from house is that there are restrictions on after they can have entry to their office, just like the share who mentioned this in 2020 (14%).

Most staff who might do business from home however are opting to not say a significant motive is that they really feel extra productive at their office

About one-in-five staff (22%) who say the tasks of their job can principally be completed from residence additionally say they hardly ever or by no means telework. For many (64%), it is because their employer doesn’t enable them to do business from home extra usually. However for some (36%), there are different explanation why they’re opting to enter their office fairly than working from residence.

Productivity and preference are main reasons workers who could otherwise work from home are opting not to do so

Once more, private choice is a driving drive behind these decisions. Six-in-ten of those staff say a significant motive why they hardly ever or by no means do business from home is that they like working at their office. An extra 19% say it is a minor motive why they don’t do business from home extra usually, and 21% say this isn’t a motive. An identical share (61%) say a significant motive why they hardly ever or by no means do business from home is that they really feel extra productive at their office. Some 16% say it is a minor motive and 23% say it’s not a motive. 

Comparatively few (21%) say not having the area or assets at residence to work successfully is a significant motive why they hardly ever or by no means do business from home; 23% say it is a minor motive and 55% say it’s not a motive. 

In terms of having extra alternatives to advance at work if they’re there in individual or feeling stress from supervisors or co-workers to be within the workplace, massive majorities say these aren’t explanation why they hardly ever or by no means do business from home. Solely 14% level to alternatives for development as a significant motive and 9% cite stress from their colleagues. 

A majority of latest teleworkers say their present association makes it simpler to steadiness work and private life

For these new to working from residence, the pandemic-related shift to telework has modified some issues whereas leaving others comparatively the identical. For instance, amongst employed adults whose job might be completed from residence and who’re presently working from residence a minimum of a number of the time however hardly ever or by no means did earlier than the pandemic, 64% say working from residence has made it simpler to steadiness work and their private life. Two-in-ten of those adults say balancing work and their private life is about the identical, and 16% say it’s more durable. 

Six-in-ten of those new to working from home say they feel less connected to their co-workers

Some 44% of those that shifted to telework a minimum of a number of the time throughout the pandemic say their new work association makes it simpler for them to get their work completed and meet deadlines; the same share (46%) say it’s about the identical, whereas one-in-ten say it’s now more durable to get their work completed and meet deadlines.  

Some elements of telework have been much less constructive, based on those that are actually working from residence a minimum of a number of the time however hardly ever or by no means did so earlier than the pandemic. Six-in-ten of those staff say they now really feel much less related to their co-workers. Some 36% say it’s about the identical, and 4% say they’re extra related to their co-workers.

Most staff new to telework (72%) say their potential to advance at work whereas working from house is about the identical because it was earlier than. Fewer than one-in-five say working from residence has made it simpler or more durable to advance.

Assessments of how working from residence has modified some components of labor life differ by gender. Ladies are about twice as possible as males to say working from residence has made it simpler to advance of their job (19% vs. 9%). And whereas about half of girls who’re new to telework (51%) say working from residence has made it simpler to get their work completed and meet deadlines, 37% of males say the identical. Women and men are about equally more likely to say working from residence has made it simpler for them to steadiness work and their private life.

For many who have a minimum of some in-person interactions at work, considerations about COVID-19 publicity differ throughout demographic teams

Totally 86% of staff who aren’t working solely from residence – both by selection or as a result of they will’t work remotely – say they’ve a minimum of some in-person interactions with different folks at their office. Amongst these staff, 52% say they’re a minimum of considerably involved about being uncovered to the coronavirus from the folks they work together with at work, together with 20% who’re very involved. An identical share (48%) say they’re both not too or in no way involved. That is just about unchanged from October 2020. 

About four-in-ten Black workers say they are very concerned about COVID-19 exposure at work

Black and Hispanic staff are extra possible than White staff to specific a minimum of some concern about being uncovered to the coronavirus at work (72% and 65% vs. 43%, respectively). However Black staff are notably involved: 42% say they’re very involved about COVID-19 publicity at work, in contrast with 24% of Hispanic staff and an excellent smaller share of White staff (14%). 

Issues about COVID-19 publicity at work additionally differ by gender, age and earnings. Ladies (59%) are extra possible than males (45%) to say they’re involved about being uncovered to the coronavirus from folks they work together with at work. A majority of staff youthful than 30 (60%) specific a minimum of some concern, in contrast with 52% of these ages 30 to 49, 47% of these ages 50 to 64 and 44% of these ages 65 or older. And staff with decrease incomes (59%) are extra possible than these with center (52%) and higher (40%) incomes to say they’re involved about being uncovered to COVID-19 from the folks they work together with in individual at work. 

Staff who’re totally vaccinated in opposition to COVID-19 and have obtained a booster shot are the almost definitely to specific considerations about being uncovered to the coronavirus from these they work together with in individual at work: 66% of those staff say they’re a minimum of considerably involved, in contrast with 52% of those that are totally vaccinated however haven’t gotten a booster shot and simply 25% of those that haven’t gotten any COVID-19 photographs.  

About half say they’re as involved about being uncovered to the coronavirus at work as they have been earlier than the omicron surge 

For the most part, omicron has not increased concerns about COVID-19 exposure at work

A few quarter of staff who aren’t working solely from residence and who’ve a minimum of some in-person interactions at work (26%) say they’re extra involved about being uncovered to the coronavirus at work than they have been earlier than the omicron variant began to unfold within the U.S. in December 2021. The identical share (26%) say they’re now much less involved than they have been earlier than the brand new variant began to unfold. About half (48%) say they’re about as involved as they have been earlier than. 

Black (40%) and Hispanic (32%) staff are extra possible than White staff (21%) to say they’re extra involved about being uncovered to the coronavirus from folks they work together with at work than they have been earlier than the omicron surge. About three-in-ten employed ladies (28%) say they’re extra involved now than earlier than the brand new variant began to unfold, in contrast with 23% of employed males.

A 3rd of those that are totally vaccinated in opposition to COVID-19 and have obtained a booster shot say they’re extra involved about being uncovered to the coronavirus at work than they have been earlier than omicron began to unfold. 1 / 4 of those that are vaccinated however haven’t gotten a booster and simply 10% of those that haven’t gotten any COVID-19 photographs say the identical. 

Fewer than half of staff are very glad with the steps which have been taken of their office to maintain them protected from COVID-19

Most staff who aren’t solely working from residence (77%) say they’re a minimum of considerably glad with the measures their office has put in place to guard them from coronavirus publicity, however simply 36% say they’re very glad. These assessments differ significantly by race and ethnicity, earnings and age. 

Workers’ satisfaction with COVID-19 safety measures varies by race, ethnicity and income

As was the case earlier within the pandemic, White staff who’re spending time of their office (42%) are way more possible than Black (27%) and Hispanic (26%) staff to say they’re very glad with the measures which have been put in place to guard them from being uncovered to COVID-19 at work. And whereas 44% of upper-income staff say they’re very glad, smaller shares of these with center (36%) and decrease (32%) incomes say the identical.

Throughout age teams, these youthful than 30 are the least more likely to say they’re very glad with COVID-19 security measures at their office, whereas these ages 65 and older are the almost definitely to say this. 1 / 4 of staff ages 18 to 29 say they’re very glad, in contrast with 35% of these ages 30 to 49, 44% of these ages 50 to 64, and 53% of staff 65 and older. 

Vaccination necessities don’t appear to be associated to those views. Some 39% of these whose employers have required staff to get a COVID-19 vaccine, and 35% of these in workplaces with out a vaccination requirement say they’re very glad with the measures which have been put in place to guard them from being uncovered to the coronavirus.  

Most staff say their employer doesn’t require COVID-19 vaccination

About one-in-five workers say their employer has required a COVID-19 vaccine

About one-in-five staff who aren’t working solely from residence (22%) say their employer has required staff to get a COVID-19 vaccine. About three-quarters (77%) say their employer has not required vaccination (47% say their employer has inspired it and 30% say they haven’t). 

Staff with higher incomes (31%) are extra possible than these with center (19%) and decrease (23%) incomes to say their employer has required staff to get a COVID-19 vaccine. Amongst staff with a postgraduate diploma, 36% say their employer has a vaccination requirement, in contrast with 27% of these with a bachelor’s diploma, 22% of these with some faculty and an excellent smaller share of these with a highschool diploma or much less schooling (13%). 

Vaccination necessities are additionally extra widespread in city and suburban areas than in rural communities. A few quarter of staff in cities (26%) and suburbs (23%) say their employer requires staff to get the COVID-19 vaccine, in contrast with 16% in rural areas. 

Democrats and those that lean Democratic (27%) are extra possible than Republicans and Republican leaners (17%) to say their employer has required COVID-19 vaccination. These variations stay even after accounting for variations in schooling and earnings ranges amongst these teams. 

About nine-in-ten staff who say their employer has required staff to get a COVID-19 vaccine (92%) say they’re totally vaccinated, together with 58% who say they’ve obtained a booster shot. A smaller share of those that don’t have a vaccination requirement at work (65%) say they’re totally vaccinated, with 38% saying they’ve obtained a COVID-19 vaccine booster. 

Most staff don’t assume their employer ought to require COVID-19 vaccination

The survey additionally requested employed adults who aren’t working solely from residence what they assume their employer ought to do in relation to COVID-19 vaccinations, no matter what their employer is doing. Three-in-ten say their employer ought to require the vaccine, whereas most (69%) say their employer shouldn’t (together with 39% who say their employer ought to encourage however not require it and 30% who don’t assume their employer ought to do both). 

Considerably comparable shares of White, Black and Hispanic staff assume their employers ought to require staff to get a COVID-19 vaccine, however Black staff are extra possible than those that are Hispanic or White to say their employer ought to encourage staff to get vaccinated (55% vs. 43% and 37%, respectively). 

Wide partisan gaps in views of vaccination requirements at work

Views on COVID-19 vaccination necessities differ broadly alongside get together strains. Some 47% of Democrats and Democratic leaners who aren’t solely working from residence assume their employer ought to require staff to get a vaccine, in contrast with simply 10% of Republican and Republican-leaning staff. In flip, 53% of Republicans say their employer ought to neither require nor encourage staff to get vaccinated; solely 10% of Democrats say the identical. 

Amongst those that say they assume their employer ought to require staff to get the COVID-19 vaccine, 43% say their employer has, in truth, required it; 41% say their employer has inspired it however not required it, and 15% say their employer has neither required nor inspired vaccination. In contrast, a majority of those that assume their employer ought to encourage however not require vaccination (64%) and those that say their employer ought to neither require nor encourage it (61%) say what their employer is doing is in keeping with what they personally assume must be completed. 



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